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 INESAP Annual Report 2007
The International Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) is a non-profit, nongovernmental network organization with participants from all over the world. It is part of the worldwide activities of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES). The decision-making body of INESAP is the Coordinating Committee which has seven members from four continents.
The main objectives of INESAP are to promote nuclear disarmament; to strengthen existing arms control and non-proliferation regimes in the nuclear and the missile field; to develop and promote cooperative approaches to curbing the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and their means of delivery and controlling the transfer of related technology; as well as to support a transformation of the nuclear nonproliferation regime into a nuclear weapons free world regime.
Global Background
At the beginning of the year, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists moved the minute hand of the Doomsday Clock two minutes closer to midnight. It is now 5 minutes to midnight. Reflecting global failures to solve the problems posed by nuclear weapons and the climate crisis, the decision by the Bulletin's Board of Directors was made in consultation with the Bulletin's Board of Sponsors, which includes 18 Nobel Laureates. Not a good outset for the year 2007. 
In 2007, Iran did not suspend its enrichment or other sensitive nuclear fuel cycle activities. Following Resolution 1737, Chief Iranian negotiator Larijani declared that his country is opposed to nuclear weapons but suggested that this might change if it is threatened. The Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad reasserted its countries right to the production of nuclear fuel. 
Meanwhile, IAEA Chief Executive ElBaradei warned that sanctions might only lead to escalation and called on both sides to negotiate. At the end of February, the IAEA reported to the Security Council (SC) that Iran is not complying with the Resolution of 23rd December. Following, the SC exacerbated its sanction on Iran with Resolution 1747 in March while reiterating that political and diplomatic efforts were necessary to reach a solution. However, the Council of the European Union imposed addition sanctions including a total arms embargo. About a month later, Ahmadinejad proclaimed his country has started the industrial production of nuclear fuel and refused IAEA inspectors to enter the construction site of the heavy water reactor in Natanz. 
In May, ElBaradei confirmed that Iran has made significant progress in its uranium enrichment program. Thereby the SC Resolutions turned obsolete. The goal, according to ElBaradei, should now be to stop the enrichment in its industrial extent until the IAEA can ensure the peaceful character of the Iranian nuclear program. In his opinion, Iran was three to eight years away from a usable nuclear weapon, if that would indeed be the hidden goal of the program.
As one option came the suggestion of the EU-representative Solana on a ‘double freeze’ in which the SC would suspend its sanctions for a temporal halt of uranium enrichment. The new approach reflected the EU’s acceptance of the status quo but it was ruled out by Iranians chief negotiator. 
Ensuing, Larijani agreed on drafting out a ‘work plan’ for answering all outstanding safeguards compliance issues with the IAEA. Tehran also invited a team of the IAEA and agreed to additional inspections. ElBaradei was heavily criticized for independently negotiating a ‘political’ deal with Iran. With the ‘work plan’ in place, Ahmadinejad pronounced in front of the UN General Assembly that the debate on its atomic program has now been closed. 
In the contrary, US President George W. Bush warned against the threat of a third World War, may the international community not succeed in preventing Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. His government put into place another round of sanctions.
Bush’s remarks were rejected by ElBaradei stating that he has no information that Iran pursued a concrete, active nuclear weapons program. Later in the year ElBaradei reported to the Board of Governors that the IAEA has not enough information to estimate if Iran’s program is really only pursuing peaceful means. At the end of November, a meeting between EU-envoy Solana and Iranians chief negotiator Jalili failed. 
In early December, the US Director of National Intelligence released a National Intelligence Estimate. The document reflected the consensus of 16 American intelligence agencies. It concluded by stating that Iran stopped its nuclear weapons program in 2003 and had not resumed work on nuclear weapons as of mid-2007. The report immediately changed political dynamics.
Russian President Wladimir Putin held a sharp speech in front of the Munich Conference on Security Policy in which he criticized the USA for overstepping their national boundaries in every sense when talking about placing an antiballistic missile system in East Europe. The range of rockets from Iran or North Korea is said to be far too short to enter Polish or Czech airspace. Secretary of Defense Gates countered that the system does not target Russia but is to protect friends and allies. 
One month later in March, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Air Force announced the development of a new missile defense system also stating that it is for defensive purposes only but with a wider range. Meanwhile, NATO’s Secretary General de Hoop Scheffer joined into German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s calls to discuss the US project within the NATO alliance. 
In April, Russia rejected the US-proposal of sharing in the missile defense project in Poland. Putin declared that Russia feels threatened by the deployment of American nuclear weapons in Europe which could reach Russian territory up to the Ural Mountains and endanger the strategic balance in Europe. Later, the US refused a Russian proposal in the cooperation of a radar system in Azerbaijan which would have made the missile defense system in Europe unnecessary. 
In July, Deputy Prime Minister Ivanov announced that the Russian Federation will install rockets in their western regions (e.g. Kaliningrad) if Washington clings to their plans. Following in December, President Putin suspended Russia’s membership in the CSCE-treaty due to ‘extraordinary circumstances’ (Western military presence in Georgia) claiming that NATO had ignored Russia’s security interests for years. In October, Putin affirmed plans to develop new nuclear systems for the armed forces and the modernization of the conventional arsenal. 
In July, foreign ministers Rice and Lavrov got instructions to prepare negotiations on a follow-up treaty of START-1 which will expire at the end of 2009. In bilingual talks Putin suggested the expansion of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) between the two countries to more states. 
In January, North Korea agreed to close its nuclear reactor in Yongbyon and disclose all nuclear programs in exchange for heavy fuel oil. The fifth round of the Six-Party Talks ended in February with an agreement on an Action Plan towards implementing the 2005 Joint Statement. 
Six months later, the IAEA confirmed the deactivation of the 5-MW(e) research reactor, the radiochemical laboratory and the nuclear fuel fabrication plant at the Yongbyon complex. Moreover, North Korea offered the US negotiations on a peace treaty with third-party involvement of the UN. After negotiations in Geneva, North Korea agreed to render its nuclear facilities unusable and unfold all programs concerning the building of nuclear weapons and uranium enrichment.
The year ended by North Korea failing to meet the deadline of disabling all of its nuclear facilities in Yongbyon and not submitting a comprehensive declaration of its nuclear programs. 
In January, George P. Shultz, Wiliam J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger and Sam Nunn released an article in the Wall Street Journal titling “A World Free of Nuclear Weapons”. In it the authors identify steps to achieve the goal of global nuclear disarmament. 
French President Nicolas Sarkozy agreed on the installation of a nuclear power plant with Libya’s President Muammar al-Gaddafi. Prior, an intervention by the First Lady Cecilia Sarkozy succeeded in the extradition of five Romanian nurses and one doctor sentenced to death for infecting children with Aids in 1999. Later that year, Sarkozy arranged a cooperation with Algeria in the use and development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. 
Also King Abdullah of Jordan stated publicly that his country is entering talks with Western states to start up its own nuclear program. He elaborated that the rules how to deal with nuclear topics have changed and points to like-minded projects in Egypt and the Golf states. 
Australia confirmed its intention for uranium sales to India which is not a member to the NPT. Only a bilateral treaty shall guarantee the peaceful usage. 
Australia and Russia agreed on a deal that ensures Russia the supply of Australian uranium. Canberra stated that the agreement sets the stage for additional cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. 
Within the framework of “Lectures of Nobel Prize Winners” Director General of the IAEA ElBaradei spoke about challenges to and chances of today’s security. He pointed out the prevalent uncertainty and inequality which accompanies the danger of nuclear weapon proliferation. The more nuclear weapons and nuclear capable states exist, the more grows the danger of usage of those destructive weapons, he added. 
In October, the IAEA published a report stating that by 2030 the production of nuclear energy will double the amount of today. 16 nuclear plants are being build in development countries while Germany might step out. 
In March 2007, the British parliament decided on a modernization of their nuclear deterrence program. Due to the opposition in Prime Minister Tony Blair’s own party, the bill could only be passed with votes from the opposition. 
Also in March, the American National Nuclear Security Administration decided on the development of the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW). This new nuclear warhead design is intended to be simple, reliable and to provide a long lasting, low maintenance future nuclear force for the United States.
After the 22nd deposit of the ratification document, the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, entered into force by the General Assembly in July 2007. It bolsters the objectives of past treaties by requiring member states to create, define, and enforce criminal laws, establish jurisdiction, and increase cooperation in efforts to safeguard radioactive material. 
On 6th September, Israel flew a preventive air strike against a suspected Syrian nuclear reactor. The clandestine facility was said to be under construction with North Korean assistance but only wage assumptions on its purpose could be made. 
INESAP projects and activities in 2007
The iGSE project explores technologies and procedures for remote environmental sampling and other novel methodologies that would allow the detection of clandestine nuclear-weapons-usable material production. iGSE was, inter alia, founded by INESAP members and its activities and outreach are coordinated by the network. The project has obtained grants from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. In 2007, a new request for funding was generously granted which will last until May 2009. iGSE works closely with the International Panel on Nuclear Material (IPFM).
The agenda laid out in 2006 was pursuit and preparations commenced for the three major workshops in 2008, accompanied by numerous outreach activities to present iGSE and their progress in several conferences and articles. Inter alia, Martin Kalinowsky was lead author on the “Global Fissile Material Report 2007“ of the IPFM, Chapter 9: Detection of Clandestine Fissile Material Production, and contributed with an article on New developments in the verification of nuclear arms control to the INES Newsletter #57 (Nov. 2007). 
In May 2007, iGSE also presented itself at the NPT Preparatory Committee in Vienna. On that occasion, iGSE members were able to distribute more than 350 copies of the INESAP Information Bulletin #27 (December 2006) which focused on the iGSE work under the title "Detecting Nuclear Weapons Materials". iGSE, in cooperation with INESAP and IPFM, held a workshop on Fissile Material on 3rd May. The side event was moderated by INESP and iGSE Coordinator Regina Hagen. Speakers were Ole Reistad, Zia Mian and Petra Seibert. For more information see: <www.igse.net>
The Non-Proliferation Treaty
The 8th NPT Review Cycle has started with a Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meeting in Vienna, May 2007. Of utmost importance was awareness raising in the general public to alert the populations of the danger of a complete breakdown of the non-proliferation regime and the need to go beyond the NPT regime which is deemed “discriminatory” by many states. Seven INESAP members were accredited to the PrepCom including three physics students from Darmstadt and one PhD candidate from Hamburg. INESAP was again actively involved in NGO activities by co-sponsoring 6 NGO side events in cooperation with iGSE, IPPNW, IALANA, IPFM, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, Mayors for Peace and Japan Congress Against A- and H-Bomb (Gensuikin). 
The first side event, the “International Launch of Securing our Survival (SOS): The Case for a Nuclear Weapons Convention, and the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)”, was the official and well attended presentation of an updated version of the model Nuclear Weapons Convention in book-form on the opening day of the 2007 NPT PrepCom (30th April 2007 and 1st May) with support from IPPNW, IALANA and the government of Malaysia. The Speakers included Tadatoshi Akiba (Mayor of Hiroshima), Canberra Commissioner Dr. Ron McCoy (IPPNW), Carlos Vargas (delegate of Costa Rica), Jürgen Scheffran (INESAP), Alyn Ware (IALANA) and Felicity Hill (ICAN). ”Securing our Survival (SOS): The Case for a Nuclear Weapons Convention” outlines the rationale for the comprehensive prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons through an international treaty or package of agreements. This book shows that nuclear disarmament is practical, verifiable, enforceable and achievable. ICAN, which was launched with the book, has the goal of generating political will for nuclear disarmament through educating and engaging public and policy makers and by highlighting the feasibility of nuclear abolition through a Nuclear Weapons Convention. For more information see: <www.icanw.org>
The second side event “Future Energy Supply: Nuclear Energy and Renewable Energy in the Light of the NPT” on 2nd May was organized in cooperation with Mayors for Peace and Pressehütte Friedenswerkstatt Mutlangen e. V. and dealt with the following questions: Is there such a thing as a proliferation-proof reactor? Is internationalization of enrichment and reprocessing a solution? What should be done to avoid future risks? Are wind and sun risk-free? Why do we need an International Sustainable Energy Agency (ISEA)? The discussants were Ian Facer, Zia Mian, Jürgen Scheffran and Alice Slater.
On 3rd May, INESAP in cooperation with iGSE and IPFM organized a NGO workshop about “Fissile Materials”, which was moderated by INESAP and iGSE Coordinator Regina Hagen. The Speakers were Ole Reistad, Zia Mian and Petra Seibert.
The fourth side event “The US-India Deal and its Implications for Nuclear Proliferation” was organized by INESAP in cooperation with CNIC, IPFM and the Japan Congress Against A- and H-Bomb (Gensuikin) on 4th May. This event discussed the contravening implications of the US-India Deal for the NPT and the possible role of the NSG members in upholding UN Security Council Resolution 1172 and the 2000 NPT Review Conference decisions, and promoting an end to the production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons in South Asia. The Speakers for this event were Zia Mian (IPFM), Aaron Tovish (Mayors for Peace), Akira Kawasaki (Peace Boat) and Jim Green (Friends of the Earth).
The fifth side event on 7th May “Space Security – Impact on Nuclear Disarmament” was organized in cooperation with the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs and was moderated by INESAP and iGSE Coordinator Regina Hagen and Götz Neuneck (IFSH). 
The sixth side event at the 2007 NPT PrepCom “US Nuclear Weapons Policy: A Death Plan for Humanity?” took place on 8th May and was organized in cooperation with the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. Introductory presentations were held by Jackie Cabasso (Western States Legal Foundation) on “The Hidden Architecture of US Militarism”, David Krieger (Nuclear Age Peace Foundation) on “ US Nuclear Weapons Policy and the Human Future”, Götz Neuneck (IFSH) on “Missile Defense in Europe? The Impact on Nuclear Non-Proliferation” and Nick Roth (Nuclear Age Peace Foundation) on “The Future on the US Nuclear Weapons Complex”.
Middle Power Initiative’s Article VI Forum
Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), of which INES/INESAP is a member, established a new project in 2005, the Article VI Forum. Armin Tenner (INES, representative) and Regina Hagen (INESAP, representative) share participation in the Article VI Forum. The Forum is a new and creative initiative intended to stimulate and shape effective responses to the crisis of the non-proliferation/disarmament regime manifested in the breakdown of the 2005 NPT Review Conference. The Article VI Forum takes its name from the article of the NPT in which the nuclear states commit themselves to the elimination of their nuclear weapons.
The Forum has so far held two high-level meetings (in New York in October 2005 and in The Hague in March 2006) with key diplomats and leaders of middle powers to examine the political, legal, and technical elements required for a nuclear-weapons-free world. The third Article VI Forum meeting was hosted by the Canadian Government in Ottawa in late September 2006, and on the urging of MPI Chair Douglas Roche, both Armin Tenner and Regina Hagen attended. In March 2007, an Article VI Forum meeting was held under the title “Forging a New Consensus for the NPT” and with attendance of Regina Hagen (INESAP, representative). The report was published with Regina Hagen in the Executive Committee. Another Article VI Forum meeting was also held in July 2007 in Pugwash, Canada.
Abolition 2000 – International and German Section
As a founding member of “Abolition 2000 – A Global Network To Eliminate Nuclear Weapons” INESAP continued to be active in the network. Several of the Abolition 2000 working groups are convened by active INESAP members, others are members of the Abolition 2000 Coordinating Committee and Global Council. At the NPT PrepCom 2007 Abolition 2000 published an open letter to the delegates as well as recommendations to the Committee. 
INESAP also played a crucial role in the German Abolition 2000 section “Trägerkreis Atomwaffen abschaffen – bei uns anfangen!”. In August 2007, the „Hands Up!“ campaign was launched. Its goal is the retraction of US nuclear weapons from German soil by the NPT Review Conference in 2010 and as long term perspective a constitutional amendment on the nuclear-weapon-free status of Germany. Cooperation for that matter has been launched with the German Mayor for Peace members as well as churches. For further information see: <http://www.abolition2000.org>
Model Nuclear Weapons Convention
In 1996, three non-governmental organizations - IALANA, INESAP, and IPPNW - drafted a “model Nuclear Weapons Convention" outlining what a nuclear weapons convention could look like and exploring the roads to a nuclear-weapons-free world. Costa Rica submitted the mNWC to the United Nations Secretary General in 1997 (UN Doc. A/C.1/52/7).
In summer 2006, discussions about revising the joint IALANA/INESAP/IPPNW publication “Security and Survival” (which contains the full text of the Model Nuclear Weapons Convention and is available in several languages) have been taken up. The project aimed at improving the impact the three groups can make on the NPT discussions prior to the 2010 Review Conference. As a consequence of these efforts a revised version of the mNWC was presented at the Preparatory Committee meeting of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on 30th April. This revised version of the mNWC was introduced to the NPT PrepCom as an official document (working paper 17) by Costa Rica and Malaysia. 
The new publication “Securing our Survival: The Case for a Nuclear Weapons Convention. The Updated Model Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Testing, Stockpiling, Transfer, Use and Threat of Use of Nuclear Weapons and on their Elimination” contains the text of the updated mNWC, a commentary from Judge C.G. Weeramantry (Judge of the International Court of Justice 1991 – 2000) and a discussion about the necessity and possibilities of an implementation. “The Case for a Nuclear Weapons Convention” outlines the rationale for the comprehensive prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons through an international treaty or package of agreements. This book shows that nuclear disarmament is practical, verifiable, enforceable and achievable. ICAN – the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons is a global grassroots movement which promotes total nuclear disarmament through a legally binding and verifiable Nuclear Weapons Convention – was launched with the book. It is supposed to generate political will for nuclear disarmament through educating and engaging public and policy makers and by highlighting the feasibility of nuclear abolition through a Nuclear Weapons Convention.
The complete text of the original mNWC is contained in the book “Security and Survival. The Case for a Nuclear Weapons Convention”, which is co-edited by INESAP <http://www.ippnw.org/PDF/nwc1.pdf>. The text of the updated mNWC can also be downloaded from the INESAP homepage in different languages under the following link: <http://www.inesap.org/publications/nuclear-weapons-convention>. 
INESAP Representation at National and International Events
INESAP, which continues to be coordinated by Regina Hagen from the office at Darmstadt University of Technology (hosted by the university’s Interdisciplinary Research Group in Science, Technology and Security/IANUS,) has been represented at many national and international events. In the past year, in addition to those mentioned above the following events have been particularly noteworthy:
The Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space held their annual meeting in Darmstadt in March 2007. Two public rallies were held, a discussion with ESA representative was live broadcast on Radio Darmstadt and several INESAP members were speakers in front of the international audience. The issue of space and missile defense was picked up by Scandinavian groups. 
In June 2007, the INESAP representatives Jürgen Scheffran and Götz Neuneck attended the Missile Conference in Istanbul and in Athens November 2007. 
General Networking
INESAP has extended contacts to government officials and diplomats as well as to other non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and active individuals. 
As the network’s only staff person, the INESAP Coordinator now represents the network at many events and in many NGO bodies, e.g. in the Abolition 2000 Global Council, as a co-coordinator of the German Abolition 2000 section, on the Board of the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space, and as Vice President of the NGO Committee for Disarmament in Geneva. Regina Hagen has also become a member of the editorial team of the German quarterly “Wissenschaft &  Frieden“ (Science & Peace).
Armin Tenner, INES chair, took over representation of INES/INESAP on the Middle Powers Initiative Steering Committee from Fernando de Souza Barros. 
On a daily basis, many INESAP participants continue to represent INESAP and its expertise and ideas at conferences, in other organizations, at UN meetings, in expert bodies and in a variety of other forums. INESAP also maintains, among others, regular contact with the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, the International Peace Bureau, and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. 
INESAP Coordinating Committee
A few changes were made to INESAP’s committees at the “Moving Beyond Missile Defense“ conference in Berlin. On that occasion, the INESAP Coordinating Committee (CoCo) had the opportunity to meet. Most members of the committee renewed their commitment. After 7 years, Martin Kalinowski left the committee. Due to his status as interim national civil servant as staff member of the CTBTO his commitment was him no longer permitted. Martin played a key role in INESAP for many years, and his continued advice will be greatly appreciated. Johan Swahn, one of the founding fathers of INESAP, left the committee because his main research focus has shifted to sustainable development.
At the same meeting, Prof. Kathryn Nixdorff accepted a place in the committee. She is professor for microbiology at the Darmstadt University of Technology, a member of IANUS, and has been participating in INES and INESAP activities since its foundation. She has been working on non-proliferation and preventive arms control for biological weapons as well as on verification for toxicological weapons. The last open place in the CoCo was filled by Dr. Morten Bremer Mærli, researcher at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. Morten is working on nuclear non-proliferation and prevention of nuclear terrorism. He is a physicist by training with both practical and research experience in the fields of nuclear safety and security.
INESAP Information Bulletin and Briefing Paper
The Editorial Board of the INESAP Information Bulletin saw changes as well. The only person remaining in this group is Dr. Jürgen Scheffran who continues to be the main editor. Alexander Glaser, Regina Hagen, Andrew Lichterman, Dr. Götz Neuneck, and Prof. Dave Webb are the new Editorial Board members. 
INESAP Homepage
The INESAP homepage is located at <http://www.inesap.org> and gives access to INESAP publications and information, with the INESAP Information Bulletin making up the largest part. 
INESAP continued to co-sponsor the Middle Powers Initiative, and is in 2007 represented by Armin Tenner from the Netherlands on the MPI International Steering Committee <http://www.middlepowers.org>.
Organizational Matters in 2007
INESAP Coordinator
The Coordinator manages most of INESAP’s activities. The INESAP office is located in Darmstadt and hosted by the Interdisciplinary Research Group in Science, Technology and Security (IANUS) at Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany) <http://www.ianus.tu-darmstadt.de>.
In 2007, the coordinator, Regina Hagen, spoke at a wide variety of events on INESAP activities and topics. Of particular importance was her participation in the 2nd Nagasaki Global Citizens’ Assembly for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons in Nagasaki/Japan, where the Mayors for Peace officially launched their Emergency Campaign ‘2020 Vision’ for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons by 2020. Further planning between the Mayors for Peace, INESAP and a few other Abolition 2000 representatives was possible in a follow-up visit to Hiroshima on this occasion.
INESAP E-Mail Discussion List
Since 1994, Johan Swahn has facilitated an e-mail discussion list for information exchange and networking among INESAP participants. To subscribe to the list, go to <http://lists.chalmers.se/mailman/listinfo/inesap>. 
Project-specific lists have been created for the “Moving Beyond Missile Defense” project and the Space Weapons Ban Study Group. To subscribe, contact Regina Hagen at <inesap [at] hrzpub [dot] tu-darmstadt [dot] de>.
Funding and Support
INESAP funding in 2007 came from the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation (core funding for Coordinator salary, project work, and general expenses) and from the IANUS group at Darmstadt University of Technology (office and infrastructure).
Selected Publications of INESAP or INESAP Participants
The following selection of publications authored by INESAP participants is in no way complete. INESAP members are encouraged to inform the INESAP office of their future publications.
Scheffran, Jürgen, Missiles in conflict: the issue of missiles in all its complexity, in UNIDIR: Disarmament Forum 1/2007, pp. 11-22.
Altmann, Jürgen, Ute Bernhard, Kathryn Nixdorff, Ingo Ruhmann and Dieter Wöhrle (eds.): Naturwissenschaft – Rüstung – Frieden. Basiswissen für die Friedensforschung, VS Verlag, 2007.
Dingli Shen, 2007:Nonproliferation and Sino-U.S. Relationship, China International Studies, No. 2/2007. 
Fernando de Souza Barros, Nuclear Fuel Banks: A View From the South, in: Physics & Society, 36, 4, 2007, pp. 10-13.
Martin B. Kalinowski and Hartwig Spitzer (eds.), Zur Eröffnung des Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker-Zentrums für Naturwissenschaft und Friedensforschung, Hamburger Universitätenreden Neue Folge Band 11, Hamburg, 2007.
Matthew Bunn and Anatoli Diakov, Disposition of Excess Highly Enriched Uranium, in: IPFM (eds.): Global Fissile Materials Report 2007, 2007, pp. 24-32.
Matthew Bunn and Anatoli Diakov, Disposition of Excess Plutonium, in: IPFM (eds.): Global Fissile Materials Report 2007, 2007, pp. 33-42.
Morten Bremer Mærli and Annette Schaper, TheFfissile Material Cut-off Traety as a nuclear security policy driver,in: Sverre Lodgaard and Morten Bremer Mærli (eds.): Nuclear Proliferation and International Security, Routledge, Abington 2007, pp. 234-251.
Morten Bremer Mærli and Lars van Dassen, Defence as the Best Offence? Missile Defences and Nuclear Non-Proliferation, The Norwegian Atlantic Committee, 2007.
Regina Hagen and Jürgen Scheffran, International Space Law and Space Security – Expectations and Criteria for a sustainable and Peaceful Use of Outer Space, in: Marietta Benkö and Kai Uwe Schrogl (eds.): Space Law – Current Problems and Perspectives for Future Regulation, 2006, pp. 273-302.
Zia Mian, M. V. Ramana and Frank von Hippel, Feeding Potential for South Asia's Nuclear Fire, The Asahi Shimbun, Point of View, April 30, 2007.