INESAP Coordinating Committee:
Prof. Dr. Anatoli Diakov (Russia)
Morten Bremer Maerli (Norway)
Prof. Dr. Kathryn Nixdorff (Germany)
Prof. Dr. Fernando de Souza Barros (Brazil)
Dr. George Lewis (USA)
Dr. Zia Mian (Pakistan)
Prof. Dr. Dingli Shen (China)
The International Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) is a non-profit, nongovernmental network organization with participants from all over the world. It is part of the worldwide activities of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES). The decision-making body of INESAP is the Coordinating Committee which has seven members from four continents.
The main objectives of INESAP are to promote nuclear disarmament; to strengthen existing arms control and nonproliferation regimes in the nuclear and the missile field; to develop and promote cooperative approaches to curbing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery and controlling the transfer of related technology; as well as to support a transformation of the nuclear non-proliferation regime into a nuclear weapons free world regime.
Global proliferation developments
As in the year before, the activities of INESAP in 2002 again took place in view of the dominating influence of US foreign and military policy. At the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Prepatory Meeting 2002, the US stated that they feel no longer obliged to pursue all of the 13 practical steps on which all members to the NPT agreed on at the Review Meeting in 2000, as political priorities had changed since George W. Bush became President. This was in line with the renewed military role for nuclear weapons stated in the Nuclear Posture Review, which was released in part in January with classified parts leaking to the press a few months later. In June, the US withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty became effective, thus terminating restrictions on development, testing, and eventual deployment of many components and systems of the multi-layered Ballistic Missile Defense system envisioned by the US administration. US contempt of the multilateral treaty system was further shown in the countries refusal to agree to a Verification Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and to ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This attitude was confirmed by the US National Security Strategy released in September, where unilateral and preventive military operations were mentioned as a legitimate means to ensure national interests. Accordingly, the US stance against Iraq and its alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction became more aggressive in the course of the year, ultimately resulting in the Iraq war in spring 2003.
On an international scale, the crisis also deepened. In Northeast Asia, North Korea admitted to clandestine nuclear weapons activities and consequently withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in early 2003. The regional missile proliferation risk continued to be high – both horizontally and vertically – in the light of US plans to deploy tactical missile defense systems in the area. In the midst of the military crisis between India and Pakistan, both countries continued to improve their nuclear arsenals, control and command systems, and nuclearcapable delivery systems. The Middle East remained a violent region, with Israel's nuclear weapons a looming danger for the region.
These developments once more confirmed the importance of the work by INESAP.
INESAP projects and activities in 2002
Moving Beyond Missile Defense
The project "Moving Beyond Missile Defense", which was started in cooperation with the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation (NAPF) in 2001, continued throughout 2002. The project was presented on many occassions and received wide attention, in particular when INESAP Briefing Paper #8, "Beyond Missile Defense," was published in April by Andrew Lichterman, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana and Jürgen Scheffran. The Briefing Paper was re-printed in a slightly abridged version by the Global Resource Action Center for the Environment (GRACE) with a foreword by UN Undersecretary for Disarmament Affairs, Jayantha Dhanapala.
In the second half of the year, another project conference was prepared, which was held in Berlin in January 2003.
For the "Moving Beyond Missile Defense" project, a homepage is maintained at http://www.mbmd.org in cooperation with the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.
Space Weapons Ban
The INESAP working group "Space Weapons Ban" was founded at the Moving Beyond Missile Defense project conference in Shanghai/China in December 2001 and was very active in 2002. The working group met twice:
In June 2002, the workshop "Space Weapons Ban – How Can It Be Achieved?" brought together initiators of several space weapons ban proposals, scientists, diplomats, and scholars to discuss the pros and cons of the various treaty drafts. The workshop is documented in INESAP Information Bulletin #20 (August 2002).
In August 2002, a dozen experts met to discuss specific treaty-related questions that concern legal, security, and technical issues; verification; dual-use; and confidence-building. Some issues were chosen for further elaboration by smaller groups.
Details on both workshops can be found at http://www.mbmd.org/Activities/sg_swb.htm.
NPT Meeting 2002
As in previous years, INESAP contributed to the NGO activities at the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Prepatory Committee Meeting (NPT PrepCom) which was held in New York in April 2002. As a major event, INESAP co-convened a full day of workshops under the title "The Shape of Things to Come. The Nuclear Posture Review, Missile Defense, and the Danger of a New Arms Race" with speakers from nine countries.
INESAP also played a prominent role in preparing the NGO statements read to the PrepCom delegates at a morning session. The INESAP Coordinator delivered a statement on "Nuclear Arsenals, Missiles, Missile Defense, and Space Weaponization" http://www.reachingcriticalwill.org/legal/npt/NGOpres02/6.pdf. In total, five of the 14 NGO statements were read by INESAP participants.
Abolition 2000 – International and German section
As a founding member of Abolition 2000, A Global Network To Eliminate Nuclear Weapons (http://www.abolition2000.org), INESAP continued to be active in the network. Several of the Abolition 2000 working groups are convened by active INESAP members, others are members of the Abolition 2000 Coordinating Commitee and Global Council. In addition to the contributions to the NPT Prepcom meeting mentioned above, INESAP played also a crucial role in the the German Abolition 2000 section "Trägerkreis Atomwaffen abschaffen – bei uns anfangen!" and in preparing its annual conference, which was held in Erfurt in June 2002.
German initiative "Raketen abrüsten statt abwehren"
The German campaign "Raketen abrüsten statt abwehren" (Missile disarmament instead of missile defense) was continued throughout 2002. An appeal to the German parliament calls to refuse participation in any missile defense development and instead demands political initiatives for the abolition of nuclear arms and ballistic missiles. The appeal has received wide support from peace and other non-governmental organizations.
Funded by the German Berghof Stiftung für Konfliktforschung, INESAP in cooperation with the German Trägerkreis worked on drafting and designing an exhibition for the campaign. The exhibition was completed in spring 2003. As a preliminary tool for public education, a large poster on this issue in German language was printed and distributed in 2002.
Model Nuclear Weapons Convention
INESAP joined in the planning of a speaking tour on the model Nuclear Weapons Convention, with visits to several European cities in November 2002.
INESAP Information Bulletin
In 2002, INESAP published two issues of the INESAP Information Bulletin:
#19, "The Axe of Evil Against Arms Control", in March 2002,
#20, "Space Without Weapons", in August 2002.
1,100 copies of each issue were printed, with approximately 500 being mailed to subscribers. The other copies were distributed to diplomats, policy makers, media people, as well as NGO and academia representatives on many occassions.
The INESAP homepage is located at http://www.inesap.org and gives access to INESAP publications and information. In late 2002, a web access statistics program was installed which showed unexpectedly high usage of the INESAP webpage. Within four days, 377 visits were registered, most to access online versions of articles that were published in the INESAP Information Bulletin. More details will be given in the annual report for the year 2003.
INESAP continued to co-sponsor the Middle Powers Initiative and was represented by Fernando de Souza Barros from Brazil, who served as a member of the MPI International Steering Committee. http://www.middlepowers.org/mpi/index.shtml
INESAP expertise was demanded on many occassions. The INESAP Coordinator was invited to speak at many conferences and meetings abroad, e.g. by the European Network for Peace and Human Rights (Brussels/Belgium, January 2002), WILPF (Women's Day conference at UN in Geneva/Switzerland, March 2002), the annual conference of the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space (Berkeley/USA, May 2002), the Transnational Institute (ASEM4People conference in Copenhagen/Denmark, September 2002); the Norwegian Peace Council, Swedish IPPNW, Gothenburg University (several events in Scandinavia in October 2002). Many invitations were also received from German organizations, and a number of radio and newspaper interviews were given.
Organizational matters in 2002
The Coordinator manages most INESAP activities. The INESAP office is located in Darmstadt and hosted by the Interdisciplinary Research Group in Science, Technology and Security (IANUS) at Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany) http://www.ianus.tu-darmstadt.de.
INESAP e-mail discussion list
Since 1994, Johan Swahn facilitates an e-mail discussion list for information exchange and networking among INESAP participants. To subscribe to the list, send an email to the administrator at inesapowner [at] fy [dot] chalmers [dot] se. Project-specific lists have been installed for the "Moving Beyond Missile Defense" project and the Space Weapons Ban Study Group. To subscribe, contact Regina Hagen at inesap [at] hrzpub [dot] tudarmstadt [dot] de.
Funding and support
INESAP funding in 2002 came from the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and from IANUS. The German Berghof Stiftung für Konfliktforschung granted funds to develop, design, and print the German exhibition"Raketen abrüsten statt abwehren" which was completed in spring 2003. Funding for the workshop "Space Weapons Ban – How Can It Be Achieved?" was contributed by the Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security (ACDIS) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Selected publications of INESAP or INESAP participants:
Martin B. Kalinowski, Wolfgang Liebert, Silke Aumann, "The German Plutonium Balance for the Years 1968-1999. Reprocessing, Import and Export, MOX Fuel Element Production and Usage, Stored Inventories", INESAP Technical Report No. 2, December 2002, ISBN 3-93307105-4. A summary of this appeared as: Kalinowski, M.B., Liebert, W., Aumann, S.: "The German Plutonium Balance, 1968-1999", The Nonproliferation Review, vol.9, no.1, Spring 2002, pp. 146-160;
Andrew Lichterman, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, Jürgen Scheffran, "Beyond Missile Defense", INESAP Briefing Paper #8; April 2002; http://www.inesap.org/pdf/Briefing8_02.pdf.
Randy Rydell, "Models for Missile Disarmament. In Search of a Political Foundation", and Mark Smith, "Efficiency and Inefficiency of the MTCR", INESAP Briefing Paper #9, April 2002; http://www.inesap.org/pdf/Briefing9_02.pdf.
R. Rajaraman, M.V. Ramana, Zia Mian, "Possession and Deployment of Nuclear Weapons in South Asia", INESAP Briefing Paper #10, August 2002; http://www.inesap.org/pdf/Briefing10_02.pdf.
Regina Hagen and Jürgen Scheffran, "Disarmament, not Defence! Nuclear Weapons, Missile Defense, and Arms in Space - An Unholy Trinity", Blackaby Paper No 3, Abolition 2000 UK, December 2002, ISBN 0-9540464-2-0, 16 pages.
Martin B. Kalinowski and David Krieger (eds.), "Abolition of Nuclear Weapons", Proceedings of Workshop at the INES 2000 Conference "Challenges for Science and Engineering in the 21st Century", 14-18 June 2000 in Stockholm, Sweden; INESAP Proceedings No. 4, Darmstadt, 2002, ISBN 3-933071-04-6, 78 pages.
David Krieger and Carah Ong (eds.), "A Maginot Line in the Sky", Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, ISBN 0-9650914-0-6, 113 pages.
Morten Bremer Mærli and Roger Johnston, "Safeguarding This and Verifying That: fuzzy concepts, confusing terminology, and their detrimental effects on nuclear husbandry", The Nonproliferation Review, vol.9, no.1, Spring 2002, pp. 54-82; http://www.cns.miis.edu/pubs/npr/vol09/91/abs91.htm.
Morten Bremer Mærli, "U.S.-Russian naval security upgrades: lessons learned and future steps", Yaderny Kontrol, No. 4, Fall, June 17, 2002. An updated version of this paper, named "U.S.-Russian Naval Security Upgrades. Lessons learned and the way ahead", appeared in Naval War College Review, Autumn 2003, Vol. LVI, No. 4; www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/2003/Autumn/art2-a03.htm.
Bahig Nassar, "Israeli Missile Defense Systems: The US-Israeli Connection", 158 pages (in Arab).
Reuven Pedatzur (ed.), "Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East – The Next Challenge", Yad Taberkin, The Galili Center for Strategy and National Security, 142 pages.
Pavel Podvig (ed.), Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces, The MIT Press, 693 pages, ISBN 0-262-16202-4.