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INESAP is a non-profit, non-governmental network organisation with participants from all over the world. It is part of the worldwide activities of INES. The Interdisciplinary Research Group in Science, Technology and Security (IANUS) at Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany), as a member organisation of INES, manages most existing activities in INESAP. The international Coordinating Committee has 7 members in 4 continents. The main objective of INESAP are to promote nuclear disarmament, to tighten existing arms control and non-proliferation regimes, as well as to implement unconventional approaches to curbing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and to controlling the transfer of related technology. INESAP projects and activities in 1998 NPT PrepCom Second Preparatory Committee Meeting for the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference in 2000, Geneva, 28 April - 1 May. INESAP has substantially contributed to the organisation, the development of substantial discussions and the quality of the briefing program of the NGOs during these meetings. The main topics were the role of existing and new treaties in nuclear disarmament, the role of nuclear material control and disposition in disarmament as well as steps towards a NWFW and their verification. INESAP contributed to the NGO statements delivered to the delegates in the conference room, especially regarding weapon-usable materials. Model Nuclear Weapon Convention A main point of the work of INESAP within the Global Network Abolition 2000 continued to be the Model Nuclear Weapons Convention (mNWC). The drafting group for the mNWC was convened by the Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP), and technical assistance was provided by INESAP, in particular on questions and critical issues with regard to the NWC. Technical aspects of verification were examined in Briefing Paper No. 1. Abolition 2000 INESAP supported the Abolition 2000 Global Network, in particular by convening the Working Group on the Nuclear Weapons Convention (Juergen Scheffran) as well as the Working Group on nuclear-weapons-usable materials (Martin Kalinowski) and by sending representatives to the global strategy meetings. Middle Power Initiative INESAP is also involved in the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), as a co-sponsor of the MPI and through the work of Professor Fernando de Souza Barros who represents INESAP on the International Steering Committee of the MPI. The MPI seeks to mobilise influential middle-power nations in a campaign to get the nuclear weapons states to commit themselves to nuclear disarmament. Middle East The Middle East was in the focus of INESAP activities in 1998. The newly founded Egypt Scientists Against Proliferation (ESAP) and the Coordinating Center for Arabic Peace Organizations started their regional activities, including networking among scientists and engineers in the Middle East and educating them and the public. It was agreed at the INESAP 1997 Conference in Shanghai to conduct a project that concentrates on security in the Middle East and prospects for a Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone in that region. The major cooperating partners are Ayman Khalil of CRACS (Center for Research on Arms Control and Security, Amman, Jordan), F.H. Hammad of ESAP and Reuven Pedatzur of the Galili Center for Strategic and National Security, Tel-Aviv, Israel. IANUS coordinated the preparation of a concept for coordinated research work on cooperative non-intrusive monitoring as well as policy development with regard to the goal of a Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone. Verification of a nuclear weapons free world In 1998, a study has been prepared with the title: "Beyond technical verification: Transparency, verification, and preventive control for the Nuclear Weapons Convention". The main purpose of this study is to increase awareness concerning the scientific-technological constraints and boundary conditions for a way leading to a nuclear-weapon-free world. It illuminates the verification needs and limits and the problems of enforcement. The integrated and comprehensive approach chosen for the Nuclear Weapons Convention is further developed. The basic new features are preventive measures that ensure physical control over weapons-usable materials by the international agency and reduced availability of these materials. Transparency and social verification will play an important additional role. Cut-off Breaking the deadlock regarding an agreement on a cut-off of weapons-usable materials. The cut-off project "Breaking the deadlock - How can negotiations get started on effective international control of nuclear-weapon-usable materials?" was prepared in co-operation with IANUS and UNIDIR. In order to enable close links for a science-policy interface in many countries, a core group of liaisons in a dozen of countries was formed and contributed to the drafting of the proposal. All applications for funding of this project were rejected so far, mainly because of the political impasse with regard to this topic. The activities of the core group of liaisons continue on a low level basis. The main question is, what the next steps in nuclear disarmament could be and how innovative ideas could possibly facilitate progress towards a cut-off agreement for fissile materials. Further spread of nuclear weapon free zones What regions are good candidates for the next nuclear weapon free zones? What can we learn from existing zones and how can they be improved? What role should verification and non-intrusive monitoring play? As part of this project, a strategy should be developed to create a political impetus from local nuclear free authorities through the state level and further to an alliance of nuclear weapons free countries. A conference and a book publication are planned. This project started in 1997. It is conducted in co-operation with Praful Bidwai and Achin Vanaik (India), the Dag Hammarskjoeld Foundation (Sweden), the Transnational Institute (Netherlands) and the Peace Depot (Japan). Funding Financial support in 1998 came from the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, the Plougshares Fund, the Berghof Foundation, and public funds of the State of Hesse and Darmstadt University of Technology given to IANUS, where the office and staff of INESAP is located. The office of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES) in Dortmund continues to support the work of INESAP, especially in respect to the Abolition 2000 Network. The amount of funding related to INESAP was around $ 60,000 in 1998, again a significant decrease in comparison to the preceding year. About half of this was made available through IANUS. This financial calamity led to the loss of the staff position of Martin Kalinowski. He continues his active role in the INESAP Coordinating Committee. Selected publications The INESAP Information Bulletin, edited by Jürgen Scheffran, remains the main medium of INESAP for international communication. Two issues were produced in 1998 (No. 15 in April, No. 16 in November). The special topical issues were "Security, sustainability and nuclear weapons", and "Testing Fever-Preparing for the future arms race on earth and in space". The Ploughshares Fund approved a grant for dissemination of the INESAP Information Bulletin and for translation of excerpts into Arabic. A revised and extended fourth edition of the INESAP Technical Report No. 1 has been published in May 1998: André Gsponer, Jean-Pierre Hurni: "The Physical Principles of Thermonuclear Explosives, Inertial Confinement Fusion, and the Quest for Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons", 191 pages, 24 figures, 439 references and 5 tables, ISBN: 3-933071-02-X. This technical report was translated into Russian by the Russian Foreign Ministry. (Note: Sixth edition (Sep. 1999) now available). The Briefing papers were prepared on the occasion of the second Preparatory Committee meeting for the NPT Review Conference in the year 2000 from April 27 to May 8, 1998 in Geneva. Sponsored by the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.